Sunday, August 21, 2011

Management Theories for Business

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs groups individuals into five basic categories: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem and self actualization. 

 Maslow also identified the desire to know and the desire for aesthetic beauty as two innate drives that do not fit within the hierarchy. Maslow was one of the first to bring a theory to test and study human motivation. However, some of the limitations of Maslow’s theory compared with other models are that Maslow suggests that needs priorities shift over a long time. New data has shown that priorities rise and fall more frequently with the situation. A person’s needs for status, food, social interaction and so forth, change daily or weekly, not every few years.

The ERG Theory is similar to Maslow’s theory but only groups them into three categories; existence, relatedness and growth. 

 Both theories help to understand the most basic human needs but they still fail to explain the dynamics of employee needs. This is because most people don’t fit into a single needs hierarchy. Some people place social status at the top of their personal hierarchy others consider personal development and growth an ongoing priority over social relation or status.
The four drive theory is a motivation theory that is based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend. The four drive theory is more practical than the others because it avoids the assumption that everyone has the same needs hierarchy, and it explains why needs vary from one person to the next. The four drive theory provides a much clearer understanding of the role of emotional intelligence in employee motivation and behavior.

Each theory is different but still has a lot of parallels. All theories tell about needs, drives and motivations that are innate and universal and can be found in all individuals. Each encompasses how people are motivated on a whole and what they may strive for in society.

All concepts rally around the same point that drives or needs produce emotions, self concepts and social norms that translate human emotions into goal directed needs. These individual characteristics translate each need into decisions and behavior.

Most well run internet marketing companies today have recognized the needs and drives of employees. To satisfy all employees companies must provide a balanced atmosphere where individuals can continually seek fulfillment for their innate drives or needs. According to these theories a successful company should provide sufficient rewards, learning opportunities and social interaction for all employees. To do this a company could offer bonuses for top performers, pay for advancing educational programs and encourage social interactions through company plan of action meetings held several times a year.

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